bike - Touring bicycle
Photograph by Gulligon Flickr.
This is because ISO 559 wheels are used on mountain bicycles and are more durable and often easier to source in remote locations than 700C wheels. However, double wheeled trailers decrease manoeuverability and bike Bike rental are not particularly suited for touring in mountainous regions or on rugged terrain.
This allows the rider to shift weight as if without load and clear logs or rocks (trailers will typically follow over anything the bottom bracket clears). Touring bicycles traditionally use wide-ratio derailleur gears, often with a very low gear, in some countries called a granny gear , for steep hills under load. Unlike expedition touring bikes they typically sport 700c or 650b sized wheels.
Chainstays must be long enough to accommodate panniers without them brushing the rider s heels, and the entire structure must be stiff enough to safely handle long, fast descents with the machine fully loaded. Touring bicycles may also be fitted with 26 (ISO 559) wheels in preference over 700C (ISO 622). Gearing is often a mix of closely-spaced ratios for speed, combined with a few low gears for long climbs.
Yet like other touring bikes, they stress a relaxed geometry for all day comfort. Examples are the EXP and Raven from Thorn Cycles, and the Roberts Roughstuff, all made in the UK. Mixed Terrain Cycle-Touring bikes are a cross between mountain and road bikes.
Raleigh s 1985 catalogue lists touring bicycles that usually fitted with a 14-32 tooth 6-speed freewheel and 28/45/50-tooth chainrings, typically giving a gear range of 23 to 96 gear inches. In particular, the Rohloff 14-speed hub with a gear range of over 500% has been used on at least two around-the world bicycle tours. Touring bicycles usually have linear-pull brakes or cantilever brakes, instead of the caliper brakes used on racing bicycles.
Some touring bicycles, such as the Surly Long Haul Trucker, are built around 26 (ISO 559) wheels in smaller sizes and 700C wheels in larger sizes, to keep the frame geometry optimal through the size range. Hence, on the mass ride from Paris to the Beijing Olympics in 2008, the FĂ©dĂ©ration FranĂ§aise de Cyclotourisme asked all riders to use 26-inch wheels. Factors that affect rolling resistance include tire air pressure, tread and tire width as well as wheel size. The sport/touring bicycle is a very lightweight touring bike fitted with lighter wheels and narrower 25â€“28 mm (1 - 1.125-inch) tires.
Also called all-rounders, 29er touring or monster cross, these bikes strive for a balance of efficiency and speed on and off road. Typically the gearing has a triple chain-ring similar to mountain bicycles, whereas most road bicycles have only two chainrings.
Recumbents have their handlebars not in front, as with conventional bicycles, but above or below the seat. A few manufacturers like Rawland Cycles, Surly Bikes, and Singular Cycles are now producing these bikes.
They will have a longer wheelbase to allow for more comfortable cruising, at the expense of the manoeverability of an mtb. Typically they are built with light steel frames and drop handlebars.
Some bike tourers have made their own expedition bikes, by building up on mountain bike frames. To make the bikes sufficiently robust, comfortable and capable of carrying heavy loads, special features may include a long wheelbase (for ride comfort and to avoid pedal-to-luggage conflicts), frame materials that prioritize flexibility over rigidity (for ride comfort), heavy duty wheels (for load capacity), and multiple mounting points (for luggage racks, fenders, and bottle cages). Touring bicycle configurations are highly variable and may include road, sport/touring, trail, recumbent, or tandem configurations. Road touring bicycles have a frame geometry designed to provide a comfortable ride and stable, predictable handling when laden with baggage, provisions for the attachment of fenders and mounting points for carrier racks and panniers. Modern road tourers may employ 700C (622mm) wheels â€” the same diameter as a road (racing) bicycle.
A touring bicycle is a bicycle designed or modified to handle bicycle touring. But many riders convert older, non-suspension mountain bikes and cyclo-cross bikes for the purpose. Recumbents are different in that the rider sits with his legs in front.
Depending on design, the ability to carry gear on the front wheel may be limited or absent. Their frames are often made of steel as any breakages can be more easily repaired in towns all around the world. A typical expedition touring bike would be made of relatively heavy duty steel tubing, with 26 inch wheels, and componentry chosen for robustness and ease of maintenance.
Specially-made touring tires for 26 wheels are now widely available, especially in developing countries, where 700C may be difficult to obtain. Some newer touring bikes use disc brakes, because of their greater stopping power in wet and muddy conditions and also to avoid outer rim wear.
To accommodate long rides, touring bikes have comfortable handlebars and saddles. Touring bicycles often appear similar to road bicycles due to the use of drop handlebars. It may also be described as a road racing bike fitted with heavier tires and slightly more relaxed frame geometry (though still quicker than the average road touring bike).
A modern popular combination is to use an 11-34 tooth cassette with 22/32/44-tooth chain-rings, typically giving a gear range from 18 to 104 gear inches. They can make it easier for two riders of different abilities to ride together, but the tandem frame does not allow for any more luggage than a single bike does.
Mixed terrain touring bikes fall into this category and are used for mixed terrain touring in the mountains. As with recumbents, this limitation can be overcome by pulling a trailer. Touring bicycles are usually equipped with luggage racks front and rear, designed to hold panniers or other forms of luggage.
However, they are more complicated, so repairing them in remote locations can be difficult; they also weigh more than a cantilever brakes, increase the stresses on spokes, and require the front wheel to be dished, which reduces the durability of the wheels. Thus, touring bikes trade speed for utility and ruggedness. However, they greatly differ by typically having a much longer wheelbase and more stable steering geometry, with numerous attachments for luggage racks, fenders (mudguards), lights, high capacity water bottles, tools and spare parts.
This limitation may be offset by pulling a trailer. Tandems are bikes built for two riders and many couples tour on them. These range from simply stronger built mountain bikes, equipped with racks, panniers, mudguards and heavy-duty tires, to purpose-built bicycles built to cope with long-haul touring on tracks and unsealed roads in developing countries throughout Asia, Africa, and the other continents.
Low mountain bike gearing is often used and these bikes can usually carry a medium weight load without trouble. Other road touring bike may feature wider rims and more clearance in the frame for wider tires.
To carry heavy loads, to be field-repairable and for reliability, touring bicycles typically have steel (CroMo) frames and forks. Advantages of the slightly smaller wheel include additional strength, worldwide tire availability, and lighter weight.
It is designed as a fast-handling, responsive and quick day touring machine. These can easily be ridden on single track trails (about 40 cm width), over some very technical terrain.
Before the 1980s, many touring bikes for the North American market were built with 27-inch (630mm) wheels which have a slightly larger diameter. Other touring bikes use 26-inch wheels for touring bikes, for both off-road and on-road use. Salsa has also come up with a related model called the Fargo.
This combination is popular with commuters and couriers as well. . Trailers have an advantage over panniers on single track trails because the bike itself carries no extra weight, except some on the rear axle attachment (the trailer itself can be loaded with up to 70 kg).
Sport/touring bikes may sometimes have provisions for mounting slim fenders and a rear carrier or pannier rack, though in the interests of weight savings and quicker handling, most do not. There are numerous variants on the traditional road tourer depending on the weight carried and the type of terrain expected. On the other hand, single wheel trailers are extremely maneuverable, with the trailer wheel tracking very closely with the rear wheel.
Expedition tourers are strongly built bicycles designed for carrying heavy loads over the roughest roads in remote and far-flung places. Internal-geared hubs with 5, 7, 8 or even 14 gear ratios have become an option in recent years because of their robustness and low maintenance.
They may also have durable hubs, double-wall rims and 36-spoke wheels with 3 or 4-cross spoke lacing. The main design criteria for such a bike would be to allow all day comfort on the bike, have good handling characteristics under heavy load, and be capable of running smoothly on good roads, but also on the roughest of tracks.
The key difference between a mountain bike and an expedition touring bike would be the addition of racks for panniers, and tougher, all purpose tires. Most tourers also prefer heavier, stronger wheels than would be normal on a production mountain bike. It is a small, specialist market, so only a small number of bikes are sold under this description, few if any by the biggest manufacturers.
As such, it is intended to carry only the rider and very light loads, such as encountered in credit card touring, where riders typically carry little more than a pocketbook and credit cards to book overnight lodging at any handy motel, pension, or bed-and-breakfast while on a journey. World bicycle tourers Tim and Cindie Travis are notable advocates of ISO 559 wheels for touring bicycles. Instead of panniers, some riders prefer a bicycle trailer.